KNOW-HOW

> Advance technologies developed or initiated related to construction materials are as follows:

- High performance concrete technology,
- Low water demand binders,
- Triple blended cement grinding system,
- Wet plaster and mortar production system,
- Microsilica slurification system,
- Lightweight concrete production

> Method of Vertical Shaft Sinking (for sinking of shafts at a great depth under complex hydrogeological conditions)

Handbooks provided by KOCA
KOCA Group has prepared for clients' use various handbooks for establishment and operation of Cement, RMC and Quarry Businesses.

KOCA Group offers Operation Agreement for the plants invested. KOCA Group provides Manuals for HSE and QA-QC and all related technical manuals for a successful operation.

High Performance Cement

a. Introduction
HPC 62.5R is a high performance and early high strength cement that has been produced with a special grinding method using complex chemical & mineral admixture with clinker and gypsum. HPC 62.5R cement is based on low water demand binder technology, reducing water demand of cement and consequently raising the early compressive strength and overall performance. In numerous lab tests it has been proved that strength values around 100 MPa could be reached very easily. On the other hand, HPC 62.5 due to its non-shrinking features is very suitable for special applications like grouting and joint filers. The mortars produced with HPC 62.5R provide impermeability and excellent freezing and thawing resistance. While it could be used in the field which requires such features, it is very advantageous in precast applications since it shortens demolding time as a result of early strength development in ambient temperatures.

b. Composition, Chemical And Physical Properties
The HPC 62.5 Technology is based on activation of Portland clinker by means of chemical any physical procedures in a special grinding process. Its content by weight is as follows (TABLE1):

Table-1
HPC 62.5R content by weight

Clinker C3S>60 Gypsum Admixtures
%94 %5 %1

Mortar & Concrete Strength

The test results of strength development of HPC 62.5 and PC 42.5 cements are summarized as follows in graph1 (TABLE 2):

Table-2
Compressive strength values

Description 2 Days 7 Days 28 Days
HPC 62.5R 33 56 73
PC 42.5 21 37 54

These test figures are the results of lab experiments based on 44% w/c, which is found as the best ratio. In the flow table test 185-190 mm consistence is suitable.
On the other hand, tests aimed to measure early age compressive strength values, made with concrete samples of HPC 62.5R and PC 42.5 having same mix design and 360kg/m3 dosage, have shown that the mixes with HPC 62.5R have much higher compressive strength values. Further increase of these values is also possible using a special concrete admixtures.(Graph2, TABLE 3)

Table-3
Early ages compressive strength values

Description 12 Hours 18 Hours 24 Hours
HPC 62.5RA* 6 12 18
HPC 62.5R 5 11 17
PC 42.5 3 6 7
* HPC 62.5RA with special concrete admixture

These test results allow HPC 62.5R to be classified as a rapid hardening cement beside its long term strength and durability.

c. Compatibility
Like other Ordinary Portland cements HPC 62.5R is compatible with all normal building materials. Due to its adherence and impermeability, HPC 62.5R will prevent corrosion of reinforcing steel and it will not have harmful effect on any other part of structure with which it comes in contact.

d. Application
While using HPC 62.5R in concrete, w/c should be less than 45 % and there should be no concrete admixtures. During winter time antifreeze agents can be used. HPC 62.5R has build in characteristics which improves workability, early and final compressive strengths, reduces shrinkage and permeability of concrete. Therefore, no other admixtures are needed in order to give these properties to concrete and mortars. This feature not only prevents possible operator’s dosage mistakes but also allows time saving due to additional admixture applications. In order to obtain high strength, mix designs with 30-40% w/c ratios which give 80-120 mm slump are advised.

e. Concrete Properties
Early strength up to 30 MPa in 24 hours and 50 MPa in 48 hours.
High compressive strength up to 120 MPa in 28 days.
Durability of structures as a result of higher performance.
Early demolding generally without steam curing application.
High workability and ability to fill moulds with complicated shapes.
High resistance to abrasion.
High adherence and impermeability.

Polymix Ready Plaster

a. Introduction
Polymix® and Polymix® MS Ready Plasters are ready to application lime – free mortars produced in accordance with technology of ISOLA BAUCHEMIE GmbH (Germany).
Polymix® requires no additional mixing on construction site. Due to use of special retarding admixtures it will remain completely usable for the specified period of 48 hours. Polymix® is consistent in composition, strength, workability and color.

b. Composition
Polymix® Ready Plaster is composed of cement, fine and coarse natural sands together with specially selected polymer admixtures, surface-active air entraining and retarding agents. Polymix® MS Ready Plaster in addition contains high reactive micro silica.

Nominal Proportions by Weight
Products Cement Micro silica Find Sand Coarse Sand Admixtures % Cement
Polymix® 1 - 1,4 2,7 1
Polymix® MS 1 0,1 1,4 2,7 1

c. Manufacture
Polymix® Ready Plaster is manufactured using computerized ready mix mortar unit to ensure that all constituent materials are thoroughly mixed under precisely monitored conditions. Where micro silica based Polymix® MS Ready Plaster is specified the control and accuracy of the preparation and pre-mixing of the micro silica slurry provides required properties of the mix.

d. Performance Analysis
Fresh Properties
Polymix® and Polymix® MS Ready Plaster have better acoustic and thermal insulation properties due to low density and selected composition. Furthermore, as result of high internal cohesion it sticks well even to ceiling surfaces without rebound losses.
Therefore, it is easy to apply Polymix® even manually in any construction project.
Polymix® Ready Plaster delivered to the site will possess the following properties:

Table-2

Temperature
Products Age (Hours) Air (°C) Plaster (°C) Flow (cm) Air Content (%)
Polymix® 0 20 21 18 26
24 20 21 17 3
48 20 21 15 20
Polymix® MS 0 20 21 18 24
24 20 21 16 21
48 20 21 14 18

Strength Properties
The compressive and flexural strength properties Polymix® Ready Plaster are illustrated in Table 3. application of high reactive micro silica for Polymix® MS composition allows significant improvement of the adhesion to base structure as well as increasing of the strength properties of the final product.

Table-3

Products Flexural Strength Compressive Strength WaterAbsorption (%)
7 days 28 days 7 days 28 days
MPa MPa MPa MPa
Polymix® 1,2 1,5 2,5 3,5 18
Polymix® MS 1,5 1,8 3,5 4,5 15

Polymix® and Polymix® MS Ready Plaster are designed for extreme durability due to controlled method of manufacture and quality of the constituent materials used.

e. Standards
Ready-Mixed Mortar complies with BS 4721, Specification for Ready Mixed Building Mortars when tested in accordance with BS 4551, Methods for Testing Mortars, Plasters and Screeds. All materials applied for Ready-Mixed Mortar manufacturing complies with relevant Turkish and International Standards.

f. Compatibility
Polymix® Ready Plaster in compatible with all normal building materials. The admixtures present in Polymix® will not cause corrosion of metal nor will they have a deleterious effect on any other part of the structure with which they come in contact.

g. Application
Polymix® and Polymix® MS Ready Plasters are designed for use as plaster for base and finish coating, insulation, renovation and decorative purposes. Polymix® can be employed for both interior and exterior work. The following plaster thickness is recommended in accordance with BS 5492, unless greater thickness is required to enhance acoustic insulation or fire protection.

Plastering Thickness

Table-4

Type of Background Solid Plaster Thickness (mm)
Two coat work 13
Three coat work 19
Metal Lathing 13

Consumption of the mortar will depend on the type of the work, however, as a rule, 1 m3 of Polymix® will be sufficient for covering of 40-70 m2 of brick walls. Plastering walls should be clean and dry with any dust or efflorescence brushed away. Undercoats should be scratched prior to application of subsequent coats and allowed to dry out and stabilize for as long as possible.

h. Storing At Site
Stored or unused Polymix® should be kept covered by plastic film to reduce drying and to avoid contamination. Polymix® should never be remixed with water after setting, but it is possible to mix by hand a small quantity of water to replace that lost by evaporation.

i. Delivery
Polymix® Ready Plaster is delivered to site by mixer trucks in required volumes. Delivery programs can be arranged to meet individual project requirements and to ensure uninterrupted work schedules. Site containers are provided against deposit payments.

j. Relevant Standards

1-BS 4721 : Specification for Ready Mixed Building Mortars
2-BS 4551 : Methods for Testing Mortars, Plasters and Screeds
3-ASTM C 389 : Standard Specification for Packaged, Dry, Combined Materials For Mortar and Concrete
4-TS 2848 : Mortar for Masonry
5-TS 1262 : Internal Plastering
6-TS 1481 : External Rendering
7-TS 11747 : Rules for Mixing, Application and Curing of Shotcrete
8-TS 19 : Cement – Portland Cement
9-TS 12143 : Cement – Portland Composite
10-TS 1214 : Cement – Portland Silica Fume
12-TS 706 : Aggregates for Concrete
12-TS 3456 : Air Entraining Admixtures for Concrete
13-TS 3452 : Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
14-TS 2941 : Determination of Unit Weight and Air Content of Fresh Concrete By Weighting Procedure
15-TS 3114 : Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Test Specimens
16-TS 3287 : Standard Method of Test for Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Portions of Beams Broken in Flexure
176-TS 3284 : Flexure Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third Point Loading